Types of Moods of Verbs in English

There are five types of moods of verbs in English. Mood is a form of the verb to show different kinds of statement. Mood (or mode) is derived from the Latin word modus, “manner.”

Five Types of Moods of Verbs

The five types of mood of verbs are the indicative, the imperative, and the subjunctive. These different types of moods of verbs express different manners in which the action or state is expressed.

Indicative Mood

The Indicative Mood states a thing as a fact. The Indicative Mood simply declares a thing, or it asks a question ; as, John runs. Or it asks a question ; as, Where is John? I am loved,  He is loved, I was loved, He was loved.

Potential Mood

The Potential Mood states a thing as possible ; as, John can run. It might rain. She might come. The name Potential Mood has been given to such forms as, He can read.

Subjunctive Mood

The Subjunctive Mood is so called because it is subjoined to some other sentence.It states a thing conditionally or as depending upon something else ; as, I will go if he come ; When he is here, he would tell you.

The Subjunctive is always subjoined to some other statement to express a condition or supposition; hence it is sometimes called the Conditional Mood, Doubt or uncertainty is expressed. If ^there is nothing doubtful
the Indicative should be used; as, If it he so (doubtful) ; If it is so (not doubtful).  The Subjunctive is used for an intention not carried out; as, The order of the Board is that you he allowed three months leave. A wish contrary to the fact is expressed by the Subjunctive as, “Were he here” (which he is not). In this case the Conjunctions
arc omitted.  The use of the Subjunctive is dying out in modern English.

Imperative Mood

The Imperative Mood states a thing as a command or request ; as, Run John ! Close the window. Shut the door. The verbs in these sentences are in the imperative mood.

The Imperative is the root of the Terb from which the other parts are derived. It has only one tense – the present, and one Person – the second. Command may also be expressed in other ways ; as, You must do it.

The above four moods must have a particular subject. These moods form, for this reason, the Finite Verb. The rest of the verb is called the Infinitive because it need not have a particular subject ; as, To walk is pleasant. Walking is pleasant.

Infinitive Mood

A Verb in the Infinitive mood has no Subject. Only finite Verbs  have Subjects: as, to err is him. The Infinitive Mood simply names the action, and is not limited by time, person, or number ; as, To write.

The Infinitive is generally preceded by the Preposition to which is sometimes called its sign. The Infinitive once had no ‘to’ before it but was expressed by  the suffix -an. Such as, drink-an to drink.

 

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