What is a Pronoun? | Different Types of Pronouns

What is a Pronoun?

Pronoun is a word used to represent a noun. In the sentence, John says that he is sick, the word lie means John. It Is said to represent the noun John, and is called a Pronoun.

Types of Pronouns

 

Find the different types of pronouns below. Complete the exercises to reinforce your learning this part of speech.

 

Personal Pronouns

 

The Personal Pronouns are I, Thou, He, She, It, and their plurals, We, You (or Ye), They. Personal Pronouns are so called because they show person.

 

Below is given the variations of the forms of the Personal Pronouns

 

1st Person2nd Person3rd Person Singular No
SingularSingularMasc.Fem.Neut.
NomIYouHeSheIt
PossMyYourHisHerIts
ObjMeYouHimSheIt

 

1st Person2nd Person3rd Person Singular No
PluralPluralPlural for all
NomIYouThey
PossMyYourTheir
ObjMeYouThem

 

Analyze the following sentences and parse each word, noticing the personal pronoun especially.

EXERCISE

John will lose his hat. I have been to town. We shall give the beggar some money. The bird flew from her nest. You have sent him ten dollars. She wrote her mother a long letter. William hurt his hand. We have found a hen’s nest. The soldier handed the general’s hat to him.. Robert lives in my house. Some trees drop all their leaves in winter. This faithful dog has looked for his master. Mary goes to her desk. The mouse hurt his foot in a trap. You will not see my mother. Our horses ran to the stable. Lucy has seen us. Your brother sent my aunt a handsome present. Matty’s kind sister will give her a pretty book.

Compound Pronouns

The Compound Pronouns are formed by placing the word self after the possessive singular ; and the word self after the possessive plural, of the first and second person (in the personal pronouns) ; and by placing self after the objective singular; and selves after the objective plural, of the third person ; as,

1st Person2nd Person3rd Person
Singularmyselfyourselfhimself, herself, itself
Pluralourselvesyourselvesthemselves

Interrogative Pronoun

The Interrogative Pronoun is the pronoun used in asking questions. They are Who ? Which ? and What ? and are declined as below :

Singular & PluralSingular & PluralSingular & Plural
Nomwhowhichwhat
Poswhosewhose
Objwhomwhichwhat

Who applies to persons ; as, Who called John ? Whose is this hat ? To whom did you write ? Which applies to persons or things ; as. Which of the boys will sing ? Which of the peaches do you wish? What applies to things ; as, What has happened ? What do you want ?

 

Possessive Pronoun

The Possessive Pronoun is formed from the possessive case of the Personal Pronouns. Possessive Pronouns are used only in the nominative and objective cases (which are alike). They make the same sense as the possessive case of the personal pronoun but have a different use. The possessive pronouns are mine—plural ours, thine or yours—plural yours ; his, hers, it — plural theirs. When the possessive case of the personal pronoun is used, the limited noun is always used with it ; as, This is my hat ; These are our gloves. When the possessive pronoun is used the limited noun is always left out ; as, This hat is mine ; These gloves are ours.

Analyze the following sentences and parse each word noticing the compound and interrogative pronouns especially.

EXERCISE

Who came with you? The boy shot himself. Whose horse broke the cart ? Whom have you seen ? The wicked do harm to themselves. Which of these pens shall we take ? To whom will James write ? Which of the girls has come? Whom will you send? You will buy some shoes for yourself in town. What has John lost? Whose dog has James found? What has come in the mail ? Who has written such long letters ? William will cut himself in the hand.

Analyze the following sentences and parse each word noticing the possessive pronouns especially.

Which horse has James ridden ? He rode ours. Whose house will the doctor visit? He will go to hers. You have your book, you have not mine. Will Robert take your skates? He will take theirs. I see no difference between yours and ours.

Relative Pronoun

The Relative Pronoun is a pronoun which represents some noun or pronoun, and also introduces a new sentence to describe it. They are, who, which, that and what, and are declined as below.

Singular & PluralSingular & PluralSingular & PluralSingular
Nomwhowhichwhatwhat
Poswhosewhose
Objwhomwhichwhatwhat

Who represents persons ; Which represents animals and things ; That represents both persons and things ; What is the same as that which. In the sentence, John helped the man who fell, who is a relative pronoun, because it stands for man and also introduces a new sentence to tell what man it was, that is, the man who fell.

The noun or pronoun represented by the relative is called the Antecedent of the relative. Whenever a relative pronoun is used there must be at least two sentences. The sentence in which the antecedent belongs is called the Principal Sentence, because it makes sense standing by itself. The sentence in which the relative belongs is called the Dependent Sentence, because it depends, for its meaning, on some word in the principal sentence.

The case of the antecedent depends on how the antecedent is used in the principal sentence. It may be the subject or the direct object, etc. The case of the relative depends on how the relative is used in the dependent sentence. It may be indirect object or subject or possessive, etc.

All these pronouns except that may have the words ever or soever joined to them ; as, whoever, whosoever, whichever, whichsoever, whatever, whatsoever. These are called Compound Relative Pronouns, and differ from the relative pronouns very little in meaning and not at all in use, except that the antecedent is sometimes left out ; as, I will give you (the thing) whatever you want. The antecedent often comes after these relatives ; as, Whoever reaches the mark first, he will win the race.

Analyze the following sentences. In each, state which is principal and which is dependent part, or clause. Parse each word, noticing the relative and antecedent especially :

EXERCISE

The girl whose aunt died went to Boston. We know the men who lost their money. John caught the horse which broke the buggy. I met the boy to whom you gave those fine books. The king rewarded the soldiers who distinguished themselves in battle. I bought the horse to which the judges gave the premium. The squirrel at which I shot ran into his hole. The dog which I saw caught the hare. Workmen will paint the house in which we live. The horse ate the corn which the farmer gave him. The bird whose wing John broke flew into the woods. The queen bought the fish which the fisherman brought to the castle. The boy to whom I sold the gun shot a bear with it. Snakes live in the holes which you see under those rocks. I admire the horse on which William rides. We shall give the money to whomsoever we choose. These roads, whichever you take, will lead you to the town. The boy wants whatever he sees, We will buy you whatever you need. I eat whatever I like.

Adjective Pronoun

The Adjective Pronoun is a word which is used as a limiting adjective when there is a noun in the sentence for it to agree with ; as, Many men came to the city ; but it is used as a pronoun when there is no noun in the sentence for it to agree with ; as, Many came to the city. Below is a list of the most important Adjective Pronouns:

alleachmuchsome
anothereitherneithersuch
anyfewownthat
bothmanyseveralthis

In the following sentences select the adjective pronouns and state whether they are used as adjectives or pronouns and parse them.

EXERCISE

All men admire bravery. All feared the robbers. The boy wants another apple. This suits me. Any book will please him. That annoys your father. Both boys studied the lesson. Several were hurt. That poem will give us much pleasure. Each has his own faults. Both ways lead to London. Each man tried the task. Both failed. Some men succeed. Robert shot many robins. Charles killed few.

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