Basic Important Grammar Rules
Following are some basic important grammar rules. Learn these grammar rules to minimize mistakes while speaking and writing in English.
Learn These Basic Important Grammar Rules
Grammar Rules for Pronouns
The pronoun has the same rules as the noun except that the pronoun cannot be used as nominative independent nor as objective adverbial. The pronoun has one rule which the noun does not have—that is, relative pronouns are used to connect a dependent sentence with a principal sentence.
Grammar Rules for Verbs
Rule of Syntax — A verb agrees with its subject in number and person.
Special Grammar Rule for Verbs 1
If the subject consists of more than one the verb is plural ; as, John and Mary have books.
Special Grammar Rule for Verbs 2
If the subject contains nouns or pronouns of different persons the verb is first person rather than second, and second rather than third ; as, John and you and I went away. You and James went away. In the first sentence went is first person ; in the second, went is second person.
Special Grammar Rule for Verbs 2
If one subject is affirmative and the other negative, the verb agrees with the affirmative word ; as. Not John but I am sick. Not I but James is sick.
Special Grammar Rule for Verbs 4
If the subject contains two words separated by or or nor the verb is in the singular and agrees with the nearest subject ; as, Neither James nor I am sick. Either I or John is willing to go.
Grammar Rules for Adjectives
The adjective is said to be used in the Attributive relation when it is closely joined to its noun without a verb between them. It is said to be used in the Predicative relation when it completes the sense of a verb ; as, Attributive, Tall trees lined the road. Predicative, The trees are talL
Rule of Syntax — An adjective describes or limits a noun.
The adjective (indefinite article) an is used before nouns which begin with a vowel ; as, an apple, an engine, an Indian, etc. It drops the n and becomes a before nouns beginning with a consonant : as, a boy, a cow, a dog, etc. The indefinite article an or a is used with nouns of the singular number only.
The adjective (definite article) the is used before nouns beginning with any letter, and it is used to modify nouns both of the singular and of the plural number.
Grammar Rules for Using Degrees of Adjectives
When a sentence contains an adjective in the Comparative Degree the conjunction than is always expressed or understood after the Comparative. This conjunction introduces a new sentence ; as, Mountains are higher than hills. The full sentence would be, Mountains are higher than hills are. When a sentence contains an adjective in the Superlative Degree, the preposition ^is commonly expressed or understood after the superlative. This preposition governs a following noun in the objective case ; as, Robert is the tallest of the boys.
When the Comparative Degree is used, the Complement must not include that which is compared with it. The sentence, The lion is braver than any animal, is incorrect because it is the same as saying that the lion is braver than himself. With the Comparative Degree the adjective other must be used before the Complement ; as, The lion is braver than any other animal. When the Superlative Degree is used, the Complement must include that which is compared with it. The sentence, The lion is the bravest of other animals, is incorrect because it is the same as saying
that the lion is another animal.
Grammar Rules for Adverbs
The adverb has two rules. The simple adverb modifies a verb or an adjective or another adverb. The conjunctive adverb has the same use and also joins a dependent to a simple sentence.
Rule of Syntax — Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.
Grammar Rules for Prepositions
The preposition has but one rule. It forms a prepositional phrase with the noun which it governs, and this phrase is used as an adjective or as an adverb. As adjective : The trees in the forest are green ; as adverb : We rode on horses.
Rule of Syntax — Prepositions govern the objective case.
Grammar Rules for Conjunction
The conjunction has but one rule. Co-ordinate conjunctions join two words or two phrases or two principal sentences or two dependent sentences. Subordinate conjunctions join a dependent sentence to a principal sentence.
Rule of Syntax — Conjunctions join words or sentences.
The exclamation has no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence.